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A systematic review of imageless hand-held robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty: Learning curve, accuracy, functional outcome and survivorship

Lookup NU author(s): Professor David Deehan



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).


© 2020 The author(s).▪ The aim of this systematic review was to present and assess the quality of evidence for learning curve, component positioning, functional outcomes and implant survivorship for image-free hand-held robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty. ▪ Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were performed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. The criteria for inclusion was any published full-text article or abstract assessing image-free hand-held robotic knee arthroplasty and reporting learning curve, implant positioning, functional outcome or implant survival for clinical or nonclinical studies. ▪ There were 22 studies included. Five studies reported the learning curve: all were for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA)-no learning curve for accuracy, operative time was reduced after five to 10 cases and a steady surgical time was achieved after eight cases. ▪ There were 16 studies reporting accuracy: rate of outliers was halved, higher rate of joint line and mechanical axis restoration, supported by low root mean square error values. ▪ Six studies reported functional outcome: all for UKA, improvement at six to 52 weeks, no difference from manual UKA except when assessed for lateral UKA which showed improved clinical outcomes. ▪ Two studies reported survivorship: one reported an unadjusted revision rate of 7% at 20 months for medial UKA and the other found a 99% two-year survival rate for UKA. ▪ There was evidence to support more accurate implant positioning for UKA, but whether this is related to superior functional outcomes or improved implant survivorship was not clear and further studies are required.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Clement ND, Al-Zibari M, Afzal I, Deehan DJ, Kader D

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: EFORT Open Reviews

Year: 2020

Volume: 5

Issue: 5

Pages: 319-326

Online publication date: 09/05/2020

Acceptance date: 02/04/2016

Date deposited: 16/06/2020

ISSN (print): 2396-7544

ISSN (electronic): 2058-5241

Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery


DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190065


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