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Screening for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) in Adults Aged 50 and Over Attending a Government HIV Clinic in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and IDEA Six Item Dementia Screen

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Anneliese Flatt, Dr Elizabeta Mukaetova-Ladinska, Dr Rufus Akinyemi, Professor Richard Walker, Dr Catherine DotchinORCiD, Dr Stella Paddick



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2020, The Author(s). Validated screening tools for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are lacking for the newly emergent ageing population of people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to validate and compare diagnostic accuracy of two cognitive screening tools, the International HIV dementia scale (IHDS), and the Identification and Interventions for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) screen, for identification of HAND in older PLWH in Tanzania. A systematic sample of 253 PLWH aged ≥ 50 attending a Government clinic in Tanzania were screened with the IHDS and IDEA. HAND were diagnosed by consensus American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria based on detailed clinical neuropsychological assessment. Strict blinding was maintained between screening and clinical evaluation. Both tools had limited diagnostic accuracy for HAND (area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve 0.639–0.667 IHDS, 0.647–0.713 IDEA), which was highly-prevalent (47.0%). Accurate HAND screening tools for older PLWH in SSA are needed.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Kellett-Wright J, Flatt A, Eaton P, Urasa S, Howlett W, Dekker M, Kisoli A, Duijinmaijer A, Thornton J, McCartney J, Yarwood V, Irwin C, Mukaetova-Ladinska E, Akinyemi R, Lwezuala B, Gray WK, Walker RW, Dotchin CL, Makupa P, Paddick S-M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: AIDS and Behavior

Year: 2021

Volume: 25

Pages: 542-553

Print publication date: 01/02/2021

Online publication date: 01/09/2020

Acceptance date: 02/04/2018

Date deposited: 03/12/2020

ISSN (print): 1090-7165

ISSN (electronic): 1573-3254

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/s10461-020-02998-9


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Funder referenceFunder name
Grand Challenges Canada (Grant Number: 0086-04)
Newcastle University Master’s in Research programme