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MR properties of 19F C3F8 gas in the lungs of healthy volunteers: T2∗ and apparent diffusion coefficient at 1.5T and T2∗ at 3T

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Peter Thelwall



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2020 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in MedicinePurpose: To measure the transverse relaxation time ((Formula presented.)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 19F-C3F8 gas in vivo in human lungs at 1.5T and 3T, and to determine the representative distribution of values of these parameters in a cohort of healthy volunteers. Methods: Mapping of ADC at lung inflation levels of functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC) was performed with inhaled 19F-C3F8 (eight subjects) and 129Xe (six subjects) at 1.5T. (Formula presented.) mapping with 19F-C3F8 was performed at 1.5T (at FRC and TLC) for 8 subjects and at 3T (at TLC for seven subjects). Results: At both FRC and TLC, the 19F-C3F8 ADC was smaller than the free diffusion coefficient demonstrating airway microstructural diffusion restriction. From FRC to TLC, the mean ADC significantly increased from 1.56 mm2/s to 1.83 mm2/s (P =.0017) for 19F-C3F8, and from 2.49 mm2/s to 3.38 mm2/s (P =.0015) for 129Xe. The posterior-to-anterior gradient in ADC for FRC versus TLC in the superior half of the lungs was measured as 0.0308 mm2/s per cm versus 0.0168 mm2/s per cm for 19F-C3F8 and 0.0871 mm2/s per cm versus 0.0326 mm2/s per cm for 129Xe. A consistent distribution of 19F-C3F8 (Formula presented.) values was observed in the lungs, with low values observed near the diaphragm and large pulmonary vessels. The mean (Formula presented.) across volunteers was 4.48 ms at FRC and 5.33 ms at TLC for 1.5T, and 3.78 ms at TLC for 3T. Conclusion: In this feasibility study, values of physiologically relevant parameters of lung microstructure measurable by MRI ((Formula presented.), and ADC) were established for C3F8 in vivo lung imaging in healthy volunteers.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Maunder A, Chan H-F, Hughes PJC, Collier G, Norquay G, Rodgers O, Thelwall P, Robb F, Rao M, Wild JM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Year: 2021

Volume: 85

Issue: 3

Pages: 1561-1570

Print publication date: 01/03/2021

Online publication date: 14/09/2020

Acceptance date: 17/08/2020

Date deposited: 06/01/2021

ISSN (print): 0740-3194

ISSN (electronic): 1522-2594

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.


DOI: 10.1002/mrm.28511


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Funder referenceFunder name
investigator‐led research grant from GE Healthcare
LIFT MRC project MR/N018915/1
Medical Research Council (MR/M008894/1)
National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR‐RP‐R3‐12‐027)
research grant from GlaxoSmithKline (BIDS3000032592).