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Outcome of Non-hematological Autoimmunity After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Su Han Lum, Dr Zohreh Nademi, Dr Terence Flood, Professor Timothy Cheetham, Dr Mario Abinun, Professor Sophie HambletonORCiD, Professor Andrew GenneryORCiD, Professor Mary Slatter


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© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Purpose: Knowledge of post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) non-hematological autoimmune disease (AD) is far from satisfactory. Method: This multicenter retrospective study focuses on incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of post-HCT AD in 596 children with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who were transplanted from 2009 to 2018. Results: The indications of HCT were severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, n = 158, 27%) and non-SCID PID (n = 438, 73%). The median age at HCT was 2.3 years (range, 0.04 to 18.3 years). The 5-year overall survival for the entire cohort was 79% (95% cumulative incidence (CIN), 74–83%). The median follow-up of surviving patients was 4.3 years (0.08 to 14.7 years). The CIN of post-HCT AD was 3% (2–5%) at 1 year post-HCT, 7% (5–11%) at 5 years post-HCT, and 11% (7–17%) at 8 years post-HCT. The median onset of post-HCT AD was 2.2 years (0.12 to 9.6 years). Autoimmune thyroid disorder (n = 19, 62%) was the most common post-HCT AD, followed by neuromuscular disorders (n = 7, 22%) and rheumatological manifestations (n = 5, 16%). All patients but one required treatment for post-HCT AD. After multivariate analysis, age at transplant (p = 0.01) and T cell–depleted graft (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of post-HCT AD. None of the T cell–depleted graft recipients developed post-HCT AD. Patients with a lower CD3+ count at 6 months post-HCT had a significant higher incidence of post-HCT AD compared to disease controls. Graft-versus-host disease, viral infection, and donor chimerism had no association with post-HCT AD. Conclusion: Post-HCT AD occurred in 11% at 8 years post-HCT and its occurrence was associated with older age at HCT and unmanipulated graft.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Lum SH, Elfeky R, Achini FR, Margarit-Soler A, Cinicola B, Perez-Heras I, Nademi Z, Flood T, Cheetham T, Worth A, Qasim W, Amin R, Rao K, Chiesa R, Bredius RGM, Amrolia P, Abinun M, Hambleton S, Veys P, Gennery AR, Lankester A, Slatter M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Clinical Immunology

Year: 2021

Volume: 41

Pages: 171-184

Print publication date: 01/01/2021

Online publication date: 03/11/2020

Acceptance date: 12/10/2020

ISSN (print): 0271-9142

ISSN (electronic): 1573-2592

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/s10875-020-00895-3


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