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Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Supriyo Choudhury, Professor Mark BakerORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are currently available for diverse labelled indications. The toxo-pharmacological properties of these formulations are not uniform and thus should not be used interchangeably. Synthetic BoNTs and BoNTs from non-clostridial sources are not far from clinical use. Moreover, the study of mutations in naturally occurring toxins has led to modulation in the toxo-pharmacokinetic properties of BoNTs, including the duration and potency. We present an overview of the toxo-pharmacology of conventional and novel BoNT preparations, including those awaiting imminent translation from the laboratory to the clinic.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Choudhury S, Baker MR, Chatterjee S, Kumar H

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Toxins

Year: 2021

Volume: 13

Issue: 1

Print publication date: 14/01/2021

Online publication date: 14/01/2021

Acceptance date: 08/01/2021

ISSN (electronic): 2072-6651

Publisher: NLM (Medline)


DOI: 10.3390/toxins13010058

PubMed id: 33466571