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Frozen-section examination in the management of paediatric testicular lesions

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Srinivas Annavarapu, Hany GabraORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2021, The Author(s). Purpose: Paediatric testicular and para-testicular lesions have traditionally been managed according to adult protocols. Testis-sparing surgery (TSS) has gained popularity as it has become apparent benign lesions predominate in childhood. Frozen-section examination (FSE) for intra-operative diagnosis has been extensively utilised in adults, though its use in paediatric practice remains limited. We reviewed our experience of FSE in paediatric patients with an aim to identify the utility and efficacy of this tool in the management of testicular and para-testicular pathology. Methods: A retrospective, single-centre review of paediatric patients who underwent intra-operative FSE for a range of testicular and para-testicular lesions was performed. FSE results were compared to final pathology. TSS was performed if appropriate, and was utilised in adolescent patients, and in lesions with a diameter greater than 20 mm. Results: Nine males underwent FSE from 2013 to 2020. Median age at surgery was 9 years (range 1–15). Eight (89%) patients had benign pathology. FSE result correlated with the final pathological examination in 100% of cases. FSE facilitated TSS in 7/9 cases. Conclusion: FSE has 100% diagnostic accuracy for paediatric testicular and para-testicular pathology. We would recommend all lesions be evaluated by FSE to guide intra-operative decision making and facilitate TSS in appropriate cases.

Publication metadata

Author(s): O'Connor E, Roy C, Annavarapu S, Gabra HO

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Pediatric Surgery International

Year: 2021

Volume: 37

Pages: 945-950

Print publication date: 01/07/2021

Online publication date: 13/03/2021

Acceptance date: 31/01/2021

Date deposited: 08/04/2021

ISSN (print): 0179-0358

ISSN (electronic): 1437-9813

Publisher: Springer Nature


DOI: 10.1007/s00383-021-04870-w


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