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Adjuvant Chemotherapy Associated with Survival Benefit Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Lookup NU author(s): Steven White


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© 2021, The Author(s).Background: Data supporting the routine use of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) compared with no AC (noAC) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. This study aimed to determine whether AC improves long-term survival in patients receiving NAC and resection. Methods: Patients receiving resection for PDAC following NAC from 2004 to 2016 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with a survival rate of < 6 months were excluded to account for immortal time bias. Propensity score matching (PSM) and Cox regression analysis were performed to account for selection bias and analyze the impact of AC on overall survival. Results: Of 4449 (68%) noAC patients and 2111 (32%) AC patients, 2016 noAC patients and 2016 AC patients remained after PSM. After matching, AC was associated with improved survival (median 29.4 vs. 24.9 months; p < 0.001), which remained after multivariable adjustment (HR 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.88; p < 0.001). On multivariable interaction analyses, this benefit persisted irrespective of nodal status: N0 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.72–0.90; p < 0.001), N1 (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67–0.86; p < 0.001), R0 margin status (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75–0.89; p < 0.001), R1 margin status (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64–0.93; p = 0.007), no neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NART; HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96; p = 0.009), and use of NART (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73–0.88; p < 0.001). Stratified analysis by nodal, margin, and NART status demonstrated consistent results. Conclusion: AC following NAC and resection is associated with improved survival, even in margin-negative and node-negative disease. These findings suggest completing planned systemic treatment should be considered in all resected PDACs previously treated with NAC.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Kamarajah SK, White SA, Naffouje SA, Salti GI, Dahdaleh F

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Annals of Surgical Oncology

Year: 2021

Volume: 28

Pages: 6790-6802

Print publication date: 01/10/2021

Online publication date: 30/03/2021

Acceptance date: 26/02/2021

ISSN (print): 1068-9265

ISSN (electronic): 1534-4681

Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH


DOI: 10.1245/s10434-021-09823-0


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