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© 2021, The Author(s).Background: Data supporting the routine use of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) compared with no AC (noAC) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. This study aimed to determine whether AC improves long-term survival in patients receiving NAC and resection. Methods: Patients receiving resection for PDAC following NAC from 2004 to 2016 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with a survival rate of < 6 months were excluded to account for immortal time bias. Propensity score matching (PSM) and Cox regression analysis were performed to account for selection bias and analyze the impact of AC on overall survival. Results: Of 4449 (68%) noAC patients and 2111 (32%) AC patients, 2016 noAC patients and 2016 AC patients remained after PSM. After matching, AC was associated with improved survival (median 29.4 vs. 24.9 months; p < 0.001), which remained after multivariable adjustment (HR 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.88; p < 0.001). On multivariable interaction analyses, this benefit persisted irrespective of nodal status: N0 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.72–0.90; p < 0.001), N1 (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67–0.86; p < 0.001), R0 margin status (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75–0.89; p < 0.001), R1 margin status (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64–0.93; p = 0.007), no neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NART; HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96; p = 0.009), and use of NART (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73–0.88; p < 0.001). Stratified analysis by nodal, margin, and NART status demonstrated consistent results. Conclusion: AC following NAC and resection is associated with improved survival, even in margin-negative and node-negative disease. These findings suggest completing planned systemic treatment should be considered in all resected PDACs previously treated with NAC.
Author(s): Kamarajah SK, White SA, Naffouje SA, Salti GI, Dahdaleh F
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Pages: epub ahead of print
Online publication date: 30/03/2021
Acceptance date: 26/02/2021
ISSN (print): 1068-9265
ISSN (electronic): 1534-4681
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
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