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An epidemiological survey regarding ticks and tick-borne diseases among livestock owners in punjab, pakistan: A one health context

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Dave George



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2021 by the authors.Recent global changes have led to an increase in the spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affecting domestic ruminants and humans, with an annual loss of US $13.9–$18.7 billion. The current study determined the perception and practices of livestock farmers regarding tick infestation. A total of 112 livestock farms were surveyed in Punjab, Pakistan, among which animals from 42 (37.5%) farms were infested with ticks. Only 28.6% (n = 32) of the dairy farmers were consulting veterinarians for ticks control, while 86.7% (n = 97) of the respondents did not consider biosecurity measures in the control of tick transmission. Most of the respondents, 71.4% (n = 80), did not consider manual tick removal from their animals (i.e., by hand, followed by physically crushing) as a risky practice for spreading zoonotic diseases. Improper disposal of bottles of acaricides in the farm drainage was also observed, putting the environment and aquatic life at risk. These wrong practices may contribute to high disease burdens and economic losses, increasing the possibility of transmission of zoonotic TBDs and pollution of the environment. Therefore, an integrated One Health approach is required for the control of TBDs through environmentally friendly approaches.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Hussain S, Hussain A, Ho J, Li J, George D, Rehman A, Zeb J, Sparagano O

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Pathogens

Year: 2021

Volume: 10

Issue: 3

Online publication date: 18/03/2021

Acceptance date: 16/03/2021

Date deposited: 12/04/2021

ISSN (electronic): 2076-0817

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10030361


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