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Diet, physical activity and gestational weight gain patterns among pregnant women living with obesity in the north east of england: The glowing pilot trial

Lookup NU author(s): Lem Ngongalah, Catherine McParlin, Professor Judith Rankin, Emerita Professor Elaine McCollORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Maternal diet, physical activity (PA) behaviours, and gestational weight gain (GWG) are important for optimum health of women and their babies. This secondary analysis of the GLOWING pilot cluster trial explored these among women living with obesity in high deprivation. Pregnant women completed food frequency, PA and psychosocial questionnaires. Weights were retrieved from medical records and measured during routine appointments with midwives. Descriptive and regression analyses were stratified by obesity class. A total of 163 women were recruited; 54.0% had class 1 obesity, 25.8% class 2, 20.2% class 3, and 76.1% lived in the two most deprived quintiles. Women had suboptimal dietary intake, particularly for oily fish, fruit and vegetables. PA was predominantly light intensity, from household, care and occupational activities. Most women gained weight outside of Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline recommendations (87.8%); women in class 3 obesity were most likely to have inadequate GWG below IOM recommendations (58.3%, p < 0.01) and reduced odds of excessive GWG compared with class 1 (AOR 0.13, 95% 0.04–0.45). Deprived women with obesity have a double inequality as both increase pregnancy risks. This population requires support to meet guideline recommendations for diet, PA and GWG. Further research exploring obesity classes would inform policies and care to achieve the best pregnancy outcomes.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Heslehurst N, Flynn AC, Ngongalah L, McParlin C, Dalrymple KV, Best KE, Rankin J, McColl E

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Nutrients

Year: 2021

Volume: 13

Issue: 6

Online publication date: 09/06/2021

Acceptance date: 04/06/2021

Date deposited: 23/06/2021

ISSN (electronic): 2072-6643

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/nu13061981


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