Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

MDMA powder, pills and crystal: The persistence of ecstasy and the poverty of policy

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Karenza MooreORCiD


Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available.


Commonly known as ecstasy, MDMA has been central to the British acid house, rave and dance club scene over the last 20 years. Figures from the annual national British Crime Survey suggest that ecstasy use has declined since 2001. This apparent decline is considered here alongside the concurrent emergence of a ‘new’ form of ecstasy - MDMA powder or crystal - and the extent to which this can be seen as a successful rebranding of MDMA as a ‘premium’ product in the wake of user disenchantment with cheap and easily available but poor quality pills. These changes have occurred within a policy context, which in the last decade has increasingly prioritised the drugs-crime relationship through coercive treatment of problem drug users within criminal justice-based interventions, alongside a focus on binge drinking and alcohol-related harm. This has resulted in a significant reduction in the information, support and treatment available to ecstasy users since the height of dance drug harm reduction service provision pioneered by the Safer Dancing model in the mid-1990s. © 2009, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Publication metadata

Author(s): Smith Z, Moore K, Measham F

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Drugs and Alcohol Today

Year: 2009

Volume: 9

Issue: 1

Pages: 13-19

Online publication date: 13/04/2009

ISSN (print): 1745-9265

ISSN (electronic): 2042-8359


DOI: 10.1108/17459265200900004