Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Potential of biochar derived from agricultural residues for sustainable management

Lookup NU author(s): Professor David WernerORCiD, Dr Wojciech MrozikORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.A horizontal drum kiln is a traditional method widely used in Southeast Asian countries for producing biochar. An understanding of temperature conditions in the kiln and its influence on biochar properties is crucial for identifying suitable biochar applications. In this study, four agricultural residues (corncob, coconut husk, coconut shell, and rice straw) were used for drum kiln biochar production. The agricultural residues were turned into biochar within 100–200 min, depending on their structures. The suitability of biochar for briquette fuels was analyzed using proximate, ultimate, and elemental analysis. The biochar’s physical and chemical properties were characterized via bulk density, iodine number, pHpzc, SEM, and FTIR measurements. All biochars had low O/C and H/C ratios and negative charge from both carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Coconut husk and shell biochar had desirable properties such as high heating value and a high amount of surface functional groups which can interact with nutrients in soil. These biochars are thus suitable for use for a variety of purposes including as biofuels, adsorbents, and as soil amendments.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Khawkomol S, Neamchan R, Thongsamer T, Vinitnantharat S, Panpradit B, Sohsalam P, Werner D, Mrozik W

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Sustainability

Year: 2021

Volume: 13

Issue: 15

Print publication date: 01/08/2021

Online publication date: 21/07/2021

Acceptance date: 19/07/2021

Date deposited: 12/08/2021

ISSN (electronic): 2071-1050

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/su13158147


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
funded by the Thailand research fund (TRF) no. RDG6030006
Newton Fund via the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) of the United Kingdom (BB/P027709/1).