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DEEP Study: Utility of the multidimensional pain inventory in persistent orofacial pain

Lookup NU author(s): James AllisonORCiD, Dr Chris PenlingtonORCiD, Professor Justin DurhamORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2021.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


BackgroundPersistent orofacial pain (POFP) is disabling and patients’ treatment outcomes are difficult to predict; psychosocial factors play a role. The West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) is a self-report measure which to our knowledge, has not been studied across primary and secondary care in heterogeneous POFP.ObjectiveAssess the MPI’s ability to predict clinical outcome in POFP patients across primary and secondary care settings receiving usual care.Methods146 patients receiving usual care for POFP were recruited from primary and secondary care medical and dental practices in north east England. Participants completed the MPI (v3) and Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) at recruitment, and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) was completed at recruitment, 12, and 24 months. “Good” and “poor” outcome status was assigned to participants based on their mode dichotomised GCPS score. Logistic regression was used with overall GCPS outcome (good/poor) as the dependent variable and MPI subscale scores, demographic variables, and PHQ-4 as predictors.Results110 participants had a “good”, and 36 a “poor” outcome. In the “poor” outcome group: age, mean income, and life control scores were lower; deprivation, months in pain, PHQ-4, pain severity, interference, and affective distress scores were higher. In the “good” group MPI scores improved over time. Interference was the only consistent predictor of “poor” outcome in the logistic regression model (OR: 1.14 – 1.98, p < 0.05).ConclusionThe MPI interference subscale may help to identify patients with POFP who are likely to have consistent pain-related disability over time; it may therefore be clinically useful to identify patients likely to need early intervention.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Allison JR, Penlington C, Durham J

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation

Year: 2021

Volume: 48

Issue: 11

Pages: 1210-1218

Print publication date: 01/11/2021

Online publication date: 12/08/2021

Acceptance date: 03/08/2021

Date deposited: 12/08/2021

ISSN (print): 0305-182X

ISSN (electronic): 1365-2842

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


DOI: 10.1111/joor.13242


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