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Insights into oxidative stress in bone tissue and novel challenges for biomaterials

Lookup NU author(s): Annachiara ScalzoneORCiD, Dr Piergiorgio GentileORCiD

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Abstract

© 2021 Elsevier B.V.The presence of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in bone can influence resident cells behaviour as well as the extra-cellular matrix composition and the tissue architecture. Aging, in addition to excessive overloads, unbalanced diet, smoking, predisposing genetic factors, lead to an increase of ROS and, if it is accompanied with an inappropriate production of scavengers, promotes the generation of oxidative stress that encourages bone catabolism. Furthermore, bone injuries can be triggered by numerous events such as road and sports accidents or tumour resection. Although bone tissue possesses a well-known repair and regeneration capacity, these mechanisms are inefficient in repairing large size defects and bone grafts are often necessary. ROS play a fundamental role in response after the implant introduction and can influence its success. This review provides insights on the mechanisms of oxidative stress generated by an implant in vivo and suitable ways for its modulation. The local delivery of active molecules, such as polyphenols, enhanced bone biomaterial integration evidencing that the management of the oxidative stress is a target for the effectiveness of an implant. Polyphenols have been widely used in medicine for cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, bone disorders and cancer, thanks to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, the perspective of new smart biomaterials and molecular medicine for the oxidative stress modulation in a programmable way, by the use of ROS responsive materials or by the targeting of selective molecular pathways involved in ROS generation, will be analysed and discussed critically.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Cerqueni G, Scalzone A, Licini C, Gentile P, Mattioli-Belmonte M

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Materials Science and Engineering C

Year: 2021

Volume: 130

Print publication date: 01/11/2021

Online publication date: 16/09/2021

Acceptance date: 11/09/2021

ISSN (print): 0928-4931

ISSN (electronic): 1873-0191

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd

URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112433

DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.112433


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