Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

The Newcastle ENDOPREM™: A validated patient reported experience measure for gastrointestinal endoscopy

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Laura Neilson, Professor Linda Sharp, Dr Joanne Patterson, Professor Colin Rees



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).


© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.Objectives Measuring patient experience of gastrointestinal (GI) procedures is a key component of evaluation of quality of care. Current measures of patient experience within GI endoscopy are largely clinician derived and measured; however, these do not fully represent the experiences of patients themselves. It is important to measure the entirety of experience and not just experience directly during the procedure. We aimed to develop a patient-reported experience measure (PREM) for GI procedures. Design Phase 1: semi-structured interviews were conducted in patients who had recently undergone GI endoscopy or CT colonography (CTC) (included as a comparator). Thematic analysis identified the aspects of experience important to patients. Phase 2: a question bank was developed from phase 1 findings, and iteratively refined through rounds of cognitive interviews with patients who had undergone GI procedures, resulting in a pilot PREM. Phase 3: patients who had attended for GI endoscopy or CTC were invited to complete the PREM. Psychometric properties were investigated. Phase 4 involved item reduction and refinement. Results Phase 1: interviews with 35 patients identified six overarching themes: anxiety, expectations, information & communication, embarrassment & dignity, choice & control and comfort. Phase 2: cognitive interviews refined questionnaire items and response options. Phase 3: the PREM was distributed to 1650 patients with 799 completing (48%). Psychometric properties were found to be robust. Phase 4: final questionnaire refined including 54 questions assessing patient experience across five temporal procedural stages. Conclusion This manuscript gives an overview of the development and validation of the Newcastle ENDOPREM™, which assesses all aspects of the GI procedure experience from the patient perspective. It may be used to measure patient experience in clinical care and, in research, to compare patients' experiences of different endoscopic interventions.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Neilson LJ, Sharp L, Patterson JM, Von Wagner C, Hewitson P, McGregor LM, Rees CJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: BMJ Open Gastroenterology

Year: 2021

Volume: 8

Issue: 1

Print publication date: 25/10/2021

Online publication date: 25/10/2021

Acceptance date: 05/08/2021

Date deposited: 03/11/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2054-4774

Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group


DOI: 10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000653


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
Aquilant Endoscopy UKCRN ID 18749