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Active participation of buildings in the energy networks: Dynamic/operational models and control challenges

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Saman Nikkhah, Dr Adib Allahham, Professor Janusz Bialek, Professor Sara Walker, Professor Damian Giaouris, Stefania-Maria Papadopoulou



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.New advances in small-scale generation and consumption technologies have shifted conventional buildings’ functionality towards energy-efficient active buildings (ABs). Such developments drew the attention of researchers all around the world, resulting in a variety of publications, including several review papers. This study conducts a systematic literature review so as to analyse the concepts/factors enabling active participation of buildings in the energy networks. To do so, a relatively large number of publications devoted to the subject are identified, introducing the taxonomy of control and optimisation methods for the ABs. Then, a study selection methodology is proposed to nominate potential literature that has investigated the role of ABs in the energy networks. The modelling approaches in enabling flexible ABs are identified, while the potential challenges have been highlighted. Furthermore, the citation network of included papers is illustrated by Gephi software and analysed using “ForceAtlas2” and “Yifan Hu Proportional” algorithms so as to analyse the insights and possibilities for future developments. The survey results provide a clear answer to the research question around the potential flexibility that can be offered by ABs to the energy grids, and highlights possible prospective research plans, serving as a guide to research and industry.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Nikkhah S, Allahham A, Bialek JW, Walker SL, Giaouris D, Papadopoulou S

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Energies

Year: 2021

Volume: 14

Issue: 21

Online publication date: 02/11/2021

Acceptance date: 29/10/2021

ISSN (electronic): 1996-1073

Publisher: MDPI


DOI: 10.3390/en14217220