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Elongation, flatness and compactness indices to characterise particle form

Lookup NU author(s): Vasileios AngelidakisORCiD, Dr Sadegh NadimiORCiD, Professor Stefano Utili



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


A century after the first attempts of Wentworth to characterise the shape of cobbles, our understanding of particle morphology is still expanding. A plethora of shape indices has been proposed in the literature to characterise the morphology of individual particles. This study aims to shed light on the merits and limitations of the indices currently used to characterise particle elongation, flatness and compactness, adopting a unified classification framework. Second, new indices are proposed to address the identified shortcomings. Third, a new particle classification system derived from the proposed indices is illustrated. It is shown the new system overcomes the misclassification of a range of particles that are incorrectly classified as bladed in the Zingg system.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Angelidakis V, Nadimi S, Utili S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Powder Technology

Year: 2022

Volume: 396

Issue: Part B

Pages: 689-695

Print publication date: 01/01/2022

Online publication date: 16/11/2021

Acceptance date: 10/11/2021

Date deposited: 24/11/2021

ISSN (print): 0032-5910

ISSN (electronic): 1873-328X

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2021.11.027


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