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Essentials for Standardising the Undergraduate Urology Curriculum in Europe: Outcomes of a Delphi Consensus from the European School of Urology

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Tobias Page



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


© 2021 The Author(s)Background: The burden of urological diseases is rising as the worldwide population ages. Although specialist urological provision is needed, a large proportion of these conditions will be managed in primary care. The importance of including urology in medical education currently remains unclear. Objective: To provide recommendations on undergraduate medical education for urology in Europe. Design, setting, and participants: A three-round Delphi process to reach consensus on standardising the undergraduate urology curriculum in Europe was endorsed by the European School of Urology. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The levels of agreement were set using a nine-point scale according to the GRADE grid: 1–3, disagree; 4–6, uncertain; and 7–9, agree. Consensus was defined as at least 70% of the participants scoring within the same 3-point grouping. Results and limitations: Overall, consensus was reached for 20 of 34 statements (70.5%) across the three Delphi rounds, with agreement for 75% (n = 15) and disagreement for 25% (n = 5). The following main points were agreed. Urological teaching should be introduced before year 5 of medical school, with at least 20 h of theoretical activities and at least 30 h of practical activities. Urology should be taught as a stand-alone subject rather than combined with another surgical specialty or a nephrology programme. The participants agreed that urology should be taught according to symptoms. A urology programme should include the anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract, and students should know how to clinically assess a urological patient. Conclusions: Our recommended urology pathway will allow European medical schools to provide a more comprehensive undergraduate urology curriculum. It will also help to improve and maintain standards of urology undergraduate teaching across Europe. Patient summary: Our survey showed that urology in universities should have, at minimum, time for theoretical and practical activities and should be taught as a stand-alone subject on the basis of symptoms. Students should give feedback to facilitate constant improvement and evolution of the teaching programme.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Gomez Rivas J, Somani B, Rodriguez Socarras M, Marra G, Pearce I, Henningsohn L, Zondervan P, van der Poel H, Van Poppel H, N'Dow J, Liatsikos E, Palou J, Stanisavljevic R, Nebojsa B, Banov P, Spivak L, Giannakopoulos S, Alvarez-Maestro M, Svihra J, Page T, Yuruk E, Silva-Ramos M, Sarikaya S, Porpiglia F, Szendroi A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Urology Open Science

Year: 2021

Volume: 33

Pages: 72-80

Print publication date: 01/11/2021

Acceptance date: 09/09/2021

Date deposited: 28/01/2022

ISSN (print): 2666-1691

ISSN (electronic): 2666-1683

Publisher: Elsevier B.V.


DOI: 10.1016/j.euros.2021.09.003


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