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A Robust Mixed-Integer Convex Model for Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy Storage – Soft Open Point Devices

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Ilias Sarantakos, Dr Meltem Peker Sarhan, Dr Natalia Zografou-Barredo, Dr Matthew Deakin, Dr Haris Patsios, Professor Phil Taylor, Dr David Greenwood



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by IEEE, 2022.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


Soft open points (SOPs) are power electronic devices which can replace conventional normally open points in distribution networks. SOPs enable full control of active power flow between the interconnected feeders and can inject reactive power at each node to which they are connected. SOPs integrated with energy storage (ES) have been recently proposed to realize both spatial and temporal flexibility in active distribution networks. The flexibility provided by integrated ES-SOP devices will allow network operators to run their networks closer to their limits, but only if there is appropriate management of the uncertainty arising from demand and renewable generation. The only existing model of an ES-SOP uses nonconvex nonlinear equations, neglects uncertainty, and represents converter losses in an oversimplistic manner. This paper presents a robust mixedinteger convex model for the optimal scheduling of integrated ES-SOPs to ensure a zero probability of constraint violation. Losses of the subsystems comprising the ES-SOP are modelled using a proposed binary-polynomial model, enabling efficient scheduling of the energization state of subsystems to reduce no-load losses. The ES-SOP is considered in this paper to be owned by the network operator to: 1) manage power flow constraints, 2) minimize cost of losses, and 3) maximize arbitrage profit.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Sarantakos I, Peker M, Zografou-Barredo N, Deakin M, Patsios C, Sayfutdinov T, Taylor P, Greenwood D

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid

Year: 2022

Pages: E-Pub ahead of Print

Online publication date: 24/01/2022

Acceptance date: 14/01/2022

Date deposited: 27/01/2022

ISSN (print): 1949-3053

ISSN (electronic): 1949-3061

Publisher: IEEE


DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2022.3145709

ePrints DOI: 10.57711/nwen-m586


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