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Tools validated for assessment of mental health and cognition in older adults of Latin America and the Caribbean: A scoping review

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Stella Paddick


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© 2021 the Alzheimer's Association.BACKGROUND: The global population is ageing, with an estimated one in five people aged 60 by 2050. Latin America is one of the fastest ageing areas of the world and accurate clinical and research assessment measures of mental health in this ageing population are needed. It is not known which psychometric measures of older people's mental health and cognition are validated in a Latin American context. This scoping review aims to address this question and outline current knowledge and research gaps. METHOD: Broad search terms were defined in English then translated and adapted to Spanish and Portuguese. Databases searched included Cinahl, Medline, Embase, Scielo, Scopus, Psychinfo, EBSCO and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were validation or adaptation studies of tools for cognitive, mental health or psychosocial outcomes in older adults, conducted in Latin America or the Caribbean 1990-2019. Titles and abstracts were reviewed blindly against search criteria using the RAYYAN application and conflicts resolved through discussion. PRISMA guidelines were utilized for reporting. Data extraction summarised psychometric procedures (reliability, construct/criterion validity, diagnostic accuracy, factor analysis etc), setting and participants. RESULTS: A total of 3805 articles were identified (3075 de-duplicated) of which 526 underwent full-text review. In total, 337 articles meeting the review criteria were identified and data were extracted. Psychometric evaluations of 138 different tools were identified, (90.3% conducted since 2006) though 46 were evaluated twice or less. Cognitive screening measures were the most numerous (n=107 45.1%) followed by depression and quality of life. Brazil had the largest number of studies (n=135). The most frequently evaluated tools were MMSE, MOCA, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Clock Drawing Test. CONCLUSION: The highest validation evidence was for cognitive measures. Most evidence relates to a small number of measures (cognition, depression and quality of life) originally developed in high-income countries outside Latin America. The greatest evidence relates to, urban centres in Brazil. Though a large number of validation studies have been conducted, substantial research gaps remain. The majority of tools in current use have been insufficiently validated and their utility in clinical practice across different settings in Latin America remains unclear.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Miranda-Castillo C, Leon-Campos MO, Molleda P, Paddick S-M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association

Year: 2021

Volume: 17

Issue: S7

Print publication date: 01/12/2021

Online publication date: 01/02/2022

Acceptance date: 02/04/2018

ISSN (print): 1552-5260

ISSN (electronic): 1552-5279

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


DOI: 10.1002/alz.056054

PubMed id: 35109393


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