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More Than Meets the Kappa for Antibody Superantigen Protein L (PpL)

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Alex Ling, Professor Anil Wipat



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Immunoglobulin superantigens play an important role in affinity purification of antibodies and the microbiota-immune axis at mucosal areas. Based on current understanding, Staphylococcal Protein A (SpA), Streptococcal Protein G (SpG) and Finegoldia Protein L (PpL) are thought to only bind specific regions of human antibodies, allowing for selective purification of antibody isotypes and chains. Clinically, these superantigens are often classified as toxins and increase the virulence of the producing pathogen through unspecific interactions with immune proteins. To perform an in-depth interaction study of these three superantigens with antibodies, bio-layer interferometry (BLI) measurements of their interactions with a permutation panel of 63 IgG1 variants of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab CDRs grafted to the six human Vκ and seven human VH region families were tested. Through this holistic and systemic analysis of IgG1 variants with various antibody regions modified, comparisons revealed novel PpL–antibody interactions influenced by other non-canonical antibody known light-chain framework regions, whereas SpA and SpG showed relatively consistent interactions. These findings have implications on PpL-based affinity antibody purification and design that can guide the engineering and understanding of PpL-based microbiota-immune effects.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Ling W-L, Yeo JY, Ng Y-L, Wipat A, Gan SK-E

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Antibodies

Year: 2022

Volume: 11

Issue: 1

Online publication date: 11/02/2022

Acceptance date: 07/02/2022

Date deposited: 17/03/2022

ISSN (electronic): 2073-4468

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/antib11010014


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Funder referenceFunder name
e National Research Foundation (NRF) Singapore grant to Experimental Drug Development Centre