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Attention Pedestrians Ahead: Evaluating User Acceptance and Perceptions of a Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System-Warning System for Pedestrians

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Yanghanzi ZhangORCiD, Dr Shuo LiORCiD, Professor Phil BlytheORCiD, Simon Edwards, Dr Amy Guo, Dr Yanjie Ji, Dr Jin XingORCiD, Dr Paul Goodman, Dr Graeme Hill



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Warning system for pedestrians (WSP), one of cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS) applications, is designed to increase safety for pedestrians but also for drivers and other road users. The evaluation of end-user acceptance and perceptions of this technology is crucial before deploying it in transportation systems. Five WSP human–machine interfaces (HMIs) were designed and simulated using a driver’s first-view video footage of driving through a pedestrian crossing in Newcastle upon Tyne. The five WSP designs were evaluated with 24 younger end users (35 years old and younger). This study first evaluated the usefulness of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in modelling end-user acceptance in terms of behavioural intentions to use WSP. The results suggest that the UTAUT can be applied to investigate the end-user acceptance of WSP, with performance expectancy and effort expectancy influencing the behavioural intentions to use WSP. Furthermore, we investigated end-user attitudes towards various WSP human–machine interface (HMI) designs. Participants showed more positive attitudes towards visual-only interfaces than towards audio-only and multi-modal (combinations of visual and audio) interfaces. Above all, the findings of this research increase our understanding of public acceptance and perceptions of this C-ITS application.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Zhang Y, Li S, Blythe P, Edwards S, Guo W, Ji Y, Xing J, Goodman P, Hill G

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Sustainability

Year: 2022

Volume: 14

Issue: 5

Online publication date: 27/02/2022

Acceptance date: 25/02/2022

Date deposited: 28/02/2022

ISSN (electronic): 2071-1050

Publisher: MDPI


DOI: 10.3390/su14052787


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Funder referenceFunder name
723311European Commission