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Gender Related Differences in the Clinical Presentation of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy—An Analysis from the SILICOFCM Database

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Nduka Okwose, Dr Guy MacGowanORCiD, Professor Djordje JakovljevicORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Background and Objectives: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease that affects approximately 1 in 500 people. Due to an incomplete disease penetrance associated with numerous factors, HCM is not manifested in all carriers of genetic mutation. Although about two-thirds of patients are male, it seems that female gender is associated with more severe disease phenotype and worse prognosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gender related differences in HCM presentation. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a part of the international multidisciplinary SILICOFCM project. Clinical information, laboratory analyses, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and genetic testing data were collected for 362 HCM patients from four clinical centers (Florence, Newcastle, Novi Sad, and Regensburg). There were 33% female patients, and 67% male patients. Results: Female patients were older than males (64.5 vs. 53.5 years, p < 0.0005). The male predominance was present across all age groups until the age of 70, when gender distribution became comparable. Females had higher number of symptomatic individuals then males (69% vs. 52%, p = 0.003), most frequently complaining of dyspnea (50% vs. 30%), followed by chest pain (30% vs. 17%), fatigue (26% vs. 13%), palpitations (22% vs. 13%), and syncope (13% vs. 8%). The most common rhythm disorder was atrial fibrillation which was present in a similar number of females and males (19% vs. 13%, p = 0.218). Levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were comparable between the genders (571 vs. 794 ng/L, p = 0.244). Echocardiography showed similar thickness of interventricular septum (18 vs. 16 mm, p = 0.121) and posterolateral wall (13 vs. 12 mm, p = 0.656), however, females had a lower number of systolic anterior motion (8% vs. 16%, p = 0.020) and other mitral valve abnormalities. Conclusions: Female patients are underrepresented but seem to have a more pronounced clinical presentation of HCM. Therefore, establishing gender specific diagnostic criteria for HCM should be considered.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Preveden A, Golubovic M, Bjelobrk M, Miljkovic T, Ilic A, Stojsic S, Gajic D, Glavaski M, Maier LS, Okwose N, Popovic D, Barlocco F, Ristic A, Macgowan GA, Olivotto I, Filipovic N, Jakovljevic DG, Velicki L

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Medicina

Year: 2022

Volume: 58

Issue: 2

Online publication date: 18/02/2022

Acceptance date: 12/02/2022

Date deposited: 04/04/2022

ISSN (print): 1010-660X

ISSN (electronic): 1648-9144

Publisher: MDPI


DOI: 10.3390/medicina58020314

PubMed id: 35208637


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Funder referenceFunder name
777204Commission of the European Communities