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Operation of Inductive Charging Systems under Misalignment Conditions: A Review for Electric Vehicles

Lookup NU author(s): Binh VuORCiD, Nasiru Kadandani, Dr Mohamed Dahidah, Professor Volker Pickert



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Inductive power transfer (IPT) for Electric Vehicles (EVs) is an emerging technology that can transfer power wirelessly over certain distances, thus offering some remarkable characteristics in terms of flexibility, position and movability. The output power of an IPT system depends on the coupling factor of the magnetic couplers which can deviates from the nominal operating conditions due to occurrence of misalignment. Nevertheless, misalignment of the magnetic couplers in inductive charging is inevitable, and it usually results in the variation of the mutual inductance and output power of the system with corresponding decrease in the system overall efficiency. So far, the literature has reported various techniques for achieving designs with higher misalignment tolerance. The reported techniques can be mainly classified into three categories, as viewed from the following aspects: magnetic couplers layouts, compensation networks and control strategy. Each of these techniques has its pros and cons in terms of implementation cost, system layout, efficiency, power density and reliability depending on the application. With the increased investigation of more applications of IPT, new modified techniques of improving the misalignment tolerance in the IPT system are continuously being proposed based on permutations and combinations of the existing ones; thus causing some confusion and difficulties for researchers and system vendors to follow. This paper, therefore, aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing methods for IPT systems that address the misalignment issue in EVs wireless charging. A review of the IPT system is presented and an investigation of the numerous factors affecting the output power and performances of the system when the coils are not aligned. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each technique on the IPT system’s performance are analyzed in detail.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Vu VB, Ramezani A, Triviño A, González JM, Kadandani NB, Dahidah MSA, Pickert V, Narimani M, Aguado J

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Year: 2023

Volume: 9

Issue: 1

Pages: 1857-1887

Print publication date: 01/03/2023

Online publication date: 06/04/2022

Acceptance date: 30/03/2022

Date deposited: 31/03/2022

ISSN (electronic): 2332-7782

Publisher: IEEE


DOI: 10.1109/TTE.2022.3165465


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