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Meeting Protein and Energy Requirements of Preterm Infants Receiving Human Milk

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Nicholas EmbletonORCiD


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© 2022 S. Karger AG, Basel. Mother's own milk is universally recognized as the optimal source of nutrition for preterm infants, although most authorities agree a multi-nutrient fortifier must be added in order to support nutrient accretion at a rate comparable to in utero. Nevertheless, many preterm infants face a gap between achieved growth and what could have been achieved in utero. In this narrative review, we provide an overview on the macronutrient content in mother's own milk and donor milk and how this can be enhanced by the various available multi-nutrient fortifiers. We describe their general compositions and formulation, as well as several of their theoretical and practical advantages and drawbacks. In addition, differences between standardized fortification, or a more individualized approach like adjusted and targeted fortification are discussed. The optimal strategy however remains to be elucidated, and more experimental well-powered studies are therefore urgently needed. Until then, financial considerations and practical capabilities are likely to be the main drivers of local fortification strategies.

Publication metadata

Author(s): van den Akker CHP, Embleton ND, Vermeulen MJ, van Goudoever JB

Editor(s): Nicholas D. Embleton, Ferdinand Haschke, Lars Bode

Publication type: Book Chapter

Publication status: Published

Book Title: Strategies in Neonatal Care to Promote Optimized Growth and Development: Focus on Low Birth Weight Infants

Year: 2022

Volume: 96

Pages: 72-85

Print publication date: 28/02/2022

Acceptance date: 02/04/2018

Series Title: Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series

Publisher: Karger

Place Published: Basel


DOI: 10.1159/000519397

PubMed id: 35537430

Notes: 96th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, May 2021. Session 2: Personalized Nutrition of Preterm Infants.

Library holdings: Search Newcastle University Library for this item

ISBN: 9783318070330