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Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mario Abinun
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© 2022 Elsevier Inc. Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a rare inherited bone disease characterized by a bone resorption defect, due to osteoclast malfunction (in osteoclast-rich, oc-rich, OPT forms) or absence (in oc-poor OPT forms). This causes severe clinical abnormalities, including increased bone density, lack of bone marrow cavity, stunted growth, macrocephaly, progressive deafness, blindness, hepatosplenomegaly, and severe anemia. The oc-poor subtype of OPT is ultra-rare in humans. It is caused by mutations in either the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11) gene, encoding RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor-kappa B [NF-κB] Ligand) which is expressed on cells of mesenchymal origin and lymphocytes, or the TNFRSF member 11A (TNFRSF11A) gene, encoding the RANKL functional receptor RANK which is expressed on cells of myeloid lineage including osteoclasts. Clinical presentation is usually severe with onset in early infancy or in fetal life, although as more patients are reported, expressivity is variable. Phenotypic variability of RANK-deficient OPT sometimes includes hypogammaglobulinemia or radiological features of dysosteosclerosis. Disease progression is somewhat slower in RANKL-deficient OPT than in other ‘malignant’ subtypes of OPT. While both RANKL and RANK are essential for normal bone turnover, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice only for patients with the RANK-deficient form of oc-poor OPT. So far, there is no cure for RANKL-deficient OPT.
Author(s): Sobacchi C, Abinun M
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Print publication date: 01/11/2022
Online publication date: 27/08/2022
Acceptance date: 23/08/2022
ISSN (print): 8756-3282
ISSN (electronic): 1873-2763
Publisher: Elsevier Inc.
PubMed id: 36031188
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