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Clinical efficacy of bisphosphonates and monoclonal antibodies on bone mineral density following skeletal fractures

Lookup NU author(s): Oday Al-Dadah


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Background: Bisphosphonates and monoclonal antibodies are drugs primarily developed to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and are used to treat an array of skeletal pathologies. Their use is aimed at increasing bone health and therefore reducing fracture risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bone protection therapy on improving bone mineral density (BMD) in patients following a fracture.Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of patients who sustained a skeletal fracture and were subsequently commenced on bone protection therapy. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were performed at baseline and following a consented period of drug therapy. Bone health data included T-Scores, Z-Scores, FRAX Major, FRAX Hip and BMD. The clinical effectiveness of four bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, pamidronate and zoledronate) and one monoclonal antibody (denosumab) were evaluated.Results: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Overall, bone protection therapy significantly improved Z-score Hip, Z-score Spine, T-score Spine and BMD Spine (p < 0.05). There was a marked difference between drug therapies. Denosumab and zoledronate were associated with the greatest treatment effect size. Alendronate only improved Z-score Spine and Z-score Hip (p < 0.05). Pamidronate and risedronate did not demonstrate any statistically significant improvement across any DEXA parameter.Conclusion: Overall, bisphosphonates/monoclonal antibodies confer beneficial effects on bone health as measured by DEXA scans in patients following skeletal fractures. However, the magnitude of improvement varies among the commonly used drugs. Alendronate, zoledronate and denosumab were associated with greatest therapeutic benefit. Bone protection therapy did not improve fracture risk of patients (FRAX scores).

Publication metadata

Author(s): Sharma P, Al-Dadah O

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma

Year: 2022

Volume: 34

Print publication date: 01/11/2022

Online publication date: 26/09/2022

Acceptance date: 15/08/2022

ISSN (electronic): 0976-5662

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.jcot.2022.102022

PubMed id: 36161063


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