Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Biological growth as an alternative approach to on and off-Earth construction

Lookup NU author(s): Monika Brandic Lipinska, Professor Martyn Dade-Robertson, Dr Magdalini TheodoridouORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Copyright © 2022 Brandić Lipińska, Maurer, Cadogan, Head, Dade-Robertson, Paulino-Lima, Liu, Morrow, Senesky, Theodoridou, Rheinstädter, Zhang and Rothschild.A critical aspect of human space exploration and eventual settlement is the ability to construct habitats while minimizing payload mass launched from Earth. To respond to this challenge, we have proposed the use of fungal bio-composites for growing extra-terrestrial structures, directly at the destination, significantly lowering the mass of structural materials transported from Earth and minimizing the need for high mass robotic operations and infrastructure preparations. Throughout human history, the construction of habitats has used biologically produced materials, from bone and skins to wood and limestone. Traditionally, the materials are used only post-mortem. Currently, the idea of working with living biological organisms, and the phenomenon of growth itself, is of increasing interest in architecture and space applications. Here, we describe the use of mycelium-based composites as an alternative, biological approach for constructing regenerative and adaptive buildings in extrem environments and extraterrestrial habitats. It is a continuation of our research program initiated under the auspices of the “Myco-architecture Off Planet” NASA NIAC Team. These composites, which are fire-resistant, and insulating, do not consist of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical products and can be used independently or in conjunction with regolith, could employ the living biological growth in a controlled environment, for the process of material fabrication, assembly, maintenance, and repair, providing structures resilient to extra-terrestrial hazards. Here we outline the potential and challenges of using bio-composites for Earth and space applications. We describe how these might be addressed to make this biological approach feasible, providing new, growing materials for designing and building sustainable habitats, both on Earth and for long-duration space missions.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Brandic Lipinska M, Maurer C, Cadogan D, Head J, Dade-Robertson M, Paulino-Lima IG, Liu C, Morrow R, Senesky DG, Theodoridou M, Rheinstadter MC, Zhang M, Rothschild LJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Frontiers in Built Environment

Year: 2022

Volume: 8

Online publication date: 19/09/2022

Acceptance date: 25/08/2022

Date deposited: 23/06/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2297-3362

Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.


DOI: 10.3389/fbuil.2022.965145


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program Phase 1 and Phase 2
Northern Bridge Consortium and Research England
Research England funded Hub for Biotechnology in the Built Environment (HBBE)