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COVID-19 Restriction Movement Control Order (MCO) Impacted Emissions of Peninsular Malaysia Using Sentinel-2a and Sentinel-5p Satellite

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Stephen Blenkinsop


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© 2022, King Abdulaziz University and Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The unprecedented outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted the whole world in every aspect including health, social life, economic activity, education, and the environment. The pandemic has led to an improvement in air quality all around the world, including in Malaysia. Lockdowns have resulted in industry shutting down and road travel decreasing which can reduce the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and air pollution. This research assesses the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on emissions using the Air Pollution Index (API), aerosols, and GHG which is Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Malaysia. The data used is from Sentinel-5p and Sentinel-2A which monitor the air quality based on Ozone (O3) and NO2 concentration. Using an interpolated API Index Map comparing 2019, before the implementation of a Movement Control Order (MCO), and 2020, after the MCO period we examine the impact on pollution during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Data used Sentinel-5p, Sentinel-2A, and Air Pollution Index of Malaysia (APIMS) to monitor the air quality that contains NO2 concentration. The result has shown the recovery in air quality during the MCO implementation which indirectly shows anthropogenic activities towards the environmental condition. The study will help to enhance and support the policy and scope for air pollution management strategies as well as raise public awareness of the main causes that contribute to air pollution.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Mazlan NA, Zaki NAM, Narashid RH, Talib N, Manokaran J, Arshad FC, Fauzi SSM, Dom NC, Valipour M, Dambul R, Blenkinsop S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Earth Systems and Environment

Year: 2023

Volume: 7

Pages: 347-358

Print publication date: 01/01/2023

Online publication date: 08/10/2022

Acceptance date: 22/09/2022

ISSN (print): 2509-9426

ISSN (electronic): 2509-9434

Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH


DOI: 10.1007/s41748-022-00329-7


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