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Muscle-MRI and Functional Levels for the Evaluation of Upper Limbs in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Critical Review of the Literature

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Giorgio TascaORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Many qualitative and quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques have been applied to evaluate muscle fat degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects, but only few studies have focused on the upper limbs. We reviewed the literature in order to evaluate the association between muscle MRI findings and motor function levels in the upper limbs of DMD patients. Ten studies with upper limb muscle MRI data were available. Four explored all upper limb segments, while six explored only the forearm. Functional assessments were performed in nine of the ten studies. All of the studies showed a significant correlation between muscle MRI changes and motor function levels in both ambulant and non-ambulant DMD patients.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Cristiano L, Brogna C, Tasca G, Verdolotti T, Pane M, Mercuri E

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Medicina

Year: 2022

Volume: 58

Issue: 3

Online publication date: 17/03/2022

Acceptance date: 15/03/2022

ISSN (print): 1010-660X

ISSN (electronic): 1648-9144

Publisher: MDPI


DOI: 10.3390/medicina58030440

PubMed id: 35334617