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Comparing two simplified questionnaire-based methods with 24-h recalls for estimating fortifiable wheat flour and oil consumption in Mandaluyong City, Philippines

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Georg Lietz



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2023 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Information on fortifiable food consumption is essential to design, monitor and evaluate fortification programmes, yet detailed methods like 24-h recalls (24HRs) that provide such data are rarely conducted. Simplified questionnaire-based methods exist but their validity compared with 24HRs has not been shown. We compared two simplified methods (i.e., a household food acquisition and purchase questionnaire [FAPQ] and a 7-day semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire [SQ-FFQ]) against 24HRs for estimating fortifiable food consumption. We assessed the consumption of fortifiable wheat flour and oil using a FAPQ and, for wheat flour only, a 7-day SQ-FFQ and compared the results against 24HRs. The participants included children 12−18 months (n = 123) and their mothers 18−49 years selected for a study assessing child vitamin A intake and status in Mandaluyong City, Philippines. For fortifiable wheat flour, the FAPQ estimated considerably lower mean intakes compared to 24HRs for children and mothers (2.2 vs. 14.1 g/day and 5.1 vs. 42.3 g/day, respectively), while the SQ-FFQ estimated slightly higher mean intakes (15.7 vs. 14.1 g/day and 51.5 vs. 42.3 g/day, respectively). For fortifiable oil, the FAPQ estimated considerably higher mean intakes compared to 24HRs for children and mothers (4.6 vs. 1.8 g/day and 12.5 vs. 6.1 g/day, respectively). The SQ-FFQ, but not the FAPQ, generated useful information on fortifiable food consumption that can inform fortification programme design and monitoring decisions in the absence of more detailed individual-level data. Potential adaptations to improve the FAPQ, such as additional questions on foods prepared away from home and usage patterns, merit further research.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Friesen VM, Miller JC, Bitantes RB, Reario MFD, Arnold CD, Mbuya MNN, Neufeld LM, Wieringa FT, Stormer A, Capanzana MV, Cabanilla CVD, Lietz G, Haskell MJ, Engle-Stone R

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Maternal and Child Nutrition

Year: 2023

Pages: epub ahead of print

Online publication date: 22/02/2023

Acceptance date: 23/01/2023

Date deposited: 08/03/2023

ISSN (print): 1740-8695

ISSN (electronic): 1740-8709

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc


DOI: 10.1111/mcn.13486

PubMed id: 36815231


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Funder referenceFunder name
OPP1115464Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)