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Evaluation of Physicochemical and Amphiphilic Properties of New Xanthan Gum Hydrophobically Functionalized Derivatives

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Jie ZhangORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2023 by the authors.This research aimed to develop new hydrophobic and potentially amphiphilic benzyl xanthan gum (BXG) derivatives using a Williamson synthesis. This modification consists of an etherification reaction between xanthan gum (XG) and benzyl chloride (BC) under microwave heating. The effects of the molar ratio (R = XG/CLB, with R equal to 2 or 4) on the amphiphilic character and the degree of substitution (DS) were studied. The two benzyl xanthan gum derivatives (BXG1 and BXG2) were subsequently subjected to various physicochemical and rheological characterization techniques. The obtained results of FTIR and H1-NMR spectroscopy showed the effectiveness of the grafting of aromatic moieties onto the XG molecule with DS values of 0.59 for BXG1 and 0.7 for BXG2. The XRD analysis revealed slight modifications in the xanthan crystallinity after etherification, where the degree of crystallinity (DOC) values were 8.46%, 10.18%, and 14.67% for XG, BXG1, and BXG2, respectively. Additionally, conductivity measurements showed that the BXG derivatives exhibit higher values than native XG, due to the inter- and intra-molecular associations following the grafting of aromatic groups. Moreover, the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) was detected at 0.32% for BXG1 and 0.28% for BXG2. The rheological study confirmed that XG and its BXG derivatives exhibited a shear-thinning pseudoplastic behavior and that the viscosity increases when the DS increases. The emulsifying power test of the BXGs compared to the native XG confirmed the amphiphilic properties of the new benzylated derivatives, where the stabilizing capacity increases with increased DS.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Yahoum MM, Toumi S, Tahraoui H, Lefnaoui S, Hadjsadok A, Amrane A, Kebir M, Zhang J, Assadi AA, Mouni L

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Sustainability

Year: 2023

Volume: 15

Issue: 8

Print publication date: 02/04/2023

Online publication date: 07/04/2023

Acceptance date: 27/03/2023

Date deposited: 16/05/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2071-1050

Publisher: MDPI


DOI: 10.3390/su15086345


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