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The prevalence and outcomes of depression in older HIV-positive adults in Northern Tanzania: a longitudinal study

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Elizabeta Mukaetova-Ladinska, Dr Keith Gray, Thomas Lewis, Professor Richard Walker, Dr Catherine DotchinORCiD, Dr Stella Paddick



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2023, The Author(s). Studies of depression and its outcomes in older people living with HIV (PLWH) are currently lacking in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in PLWH aged ≥ 50 years in Tanzania focussing on prevalence and 2-year outcomes of depression. PLWH aged ≥ 50 were systematically recruited from an outpatient clinic and assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Neurological and functional impairment was assessed at year 2 follow-up. At baseline, 253 PLWH were recruited (72.3% female, median age 57, 95.5% on cART). DSM-IV depression was highly prevalent (20.9%), whereas other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were uncommon. At follow-up (n = 162), incident cases of DSM-IV depression decreased from14.2 to 11.1% (χ2: 2.48, p = 0.29); this decline was not significant. Baseline depression was associated with increased functional and neurological impairment. At follow-up, depression was associated with negative life events (p = 0.001), neurological impairment (p < 0.001), and increased functional impairment (p = 0.018), but not with HIV and sociodemographic factors. In this setting, depression appears highly prevalent and associated with poorer neurological and functional outcomes and negative life events. Depression may be a future intervention target.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Dua D, Stubbs O, Urasa S, Rogathe J, Duijinmaijer A, Howlett W, Dekker M, Kisoli A, MukaetovaLadinska EB, Gray WK, Lewis T, Walker RW, Dotchin CL, Lwezuala B, Makupa PC, Paddick SM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of NeuroVirology

Year: 2023

Volume: 29

Pages: 425–439

Online publication date: 25/05/2023

Acceptance date: 19/04/2023

Date deposited: 07/06/2023

ISSN (print): 1355-0284

ISSN (electronic): 1538-2443

Publisher: Springer Nature


DOI: 10.1007/s13365-023-01140-4

PubMed id: 37227670


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Funder referenceFunder name
Grand Challenges Canada
Newcastle University Master's in Research Programme