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Comparison of Raspberry Ketone Production via Submerged Fermentation in Different Bioreactors

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Yuen Ling Ng, Dr Kheng-Lim GohORCiD, Dr Vladimir Zivkovic



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Raspberry ketone (RK) has high commercial value in the food and healthcare industries. A biological route to this flavour compound is an attractive prospect, considering the need to meet consumer demands and sustainable goals; however, it is yet to become an industrial reality. In this work, fungal production of raspberry ketone (RK) and raspberry compounds (RC) via submerged fermentation of Nidula niveo-tomentosa was characterized in flask, stirred-tank reactor (STR), panel bioreactor (PBR), and fluidized bed reactor (FBR) configurations. The results indicate that the panel bioreactor resulted in larger, floccose pellets accompanied by maximum titres of 20.6 mg/L RK and 50.9 mg/L RC. The stirred-tank bioreactor with impeller mixing yielded compact elliptical pellets, induced the highest volumetric productivity of 2.0 mg L−1 day−1, and showed RK selectivity of 0.45. While differing mixing strategies had clear effects on pellet morphology, RK production presented a more direct positive relationship with cultivation conditions, and showed appropriate mixing and aeration favour RK to raspberry alcohol (RA). Overall, this paper highlights the importance of bioreactor design to fungal fermentation, and gives insight into green and industrial bioproduction of value-added natural compounds.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Zhang Y, Peterson EC, Ng YL, Goh K-L, Zivkovic V, Chow Y

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Fermentation

Year: 2023

Volume: 9

Issue: 6

Print publication date: 01/06/2023

Online publication date: 06/06/2023

Acceptance date: 05/06/2023

Date deposited: 20/07/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2311-5637

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/fermentation9060546


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Funder referenceFunder name
Central Public Interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund
Newcastle University