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Adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations and cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Lookup NU author(s): Fiona Malcomson, Chris Wiggins, Professor Linda Sharp, Professor John Mathers

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).


Abstract

© 2023 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Cancer Society.Background: The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Cancer Prevention Recommendations are lifestyle-based guidelines that aim to reduce cancer risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating associations between a score for adherence to the 2018 Cancer Prevention Recommendations and cancer risk was conducted. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for studies published to November 28, 2022. In meta-analysis, the estimated risk ratios and 95% CIs for adherence score as a continuous (per 1-point increment) and categorical (highest vs. lowest score category) variable using random-effects models were estimated. Results: Eighteen studies (11 cohort; seven case-control) were included investigating incidence of breast (n = 7), colorectal (n = 5), prostate (n = 2), lung (n = 2), pancreatic (n = 1), endometrial (n = 1), unknown primary cancer (n = 1), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 1), and overall (any) cancer (n = 1). The summary risk ratio per 1-point increment in adherence score was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.85–0.93; I2 = 76.5%; n = 7) for breast cancer, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84–0.91; I2 = 26.2%; n = 4) for colorectal cancer, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86–0.98, I2 = 66.0%; n = 2) for lung cancer. There were no significant associations with prostate or other cancers. Meta-analysis results using categorical adherence score variables were consistent with these findings. Conclusions: Greater adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Cancer Prevention Recommendations was associated with lower risk of breast, colorectal, and lung cancers. Future studies investigating associations with risk of other forms of cancer are warranted. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42022313327.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Malcomson FC, Wiggins C, Parra-Soto S, Ho FK, Celis-Morales C, Sharp L, Mathers JC

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Cancer

Year: 2023

Pages: epub ahead of print

Online publication date: 13/06/2023

Acceptance date: 06/04/2023

Date deposited: 11/07/2023

ISSN (print): 0008-543X

ISSN (electronic): 1097-0142

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc

URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.34842

DOI: 10.1002/cncr.34842

PubMed id: 37309215


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Funding

Funder referenceFunder name
IIG_FULL_2020_032
Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds

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