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Sex differences in treatment and outcomes amongst myocardial infarction patients presenting with and without obstructive coronary arteries: a prospective multicentre study

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mike Lawless, Dr Hanna Ratcovich, Professor Vijay KunadianORCiD


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© 2023 The Author(s).Aims: Women have an increased prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI) with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). Whether sex differences exist in the outcomes of patients with MI and obstructive coronary arteries (MIOCA) vs. MINOCA remains unclear. We describe sex-based differences in diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients with MINOCA vs. MIOCA. Methods and results: A large-scale cohort study of patients with ST/non-ST elevation MI undergoing coronary angiography (01/2015-12/2019). Patient demographics, diagnosis, prescribed discharge medications, in-hospital complications, and follow-up data were prospectively collected. A total of 13 202 participants were included (males 68.2% and females 31.8%). 10.9% were diagnosed with MINOCA. Median follow-up was 4.62 years. Females (44.8%) were as commonly diagnosed with MINOCA as males (55.2%), unlike the male preponderance in MIOCA (male, 69.8%; female, 30.2%). Less secondary prevention medications were prescribed at discharge for MINOCA than MIOCA. There was no difference in mortality risk between MINOCA and MIOCA [in-hospital: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-2.35, P = 0.350; long term: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31, P = 0.813]. MINOCA patients had reduced mortality at long-term follow-up if prescribed secondary prevention medications (aHR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.87, P = 0.004). Females diagnosed with MIOCA had greater odds of in-hospital and 1-year mortality than males (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09-2.07, P = 0.014; aHR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.38, P = 0.048). Conclusion: MINOCA patients have similar mortality rates as MIOCA patients. MINOCA patients were less likely than those with MIOCA to be discharged with guideline-recommended secondary prevention therapy; however, those with MINOCA who received secondary prevention survived longer. Females with MIOCA experienced higher mortality rates vs. males.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Lawless M, Appelman Y, Beltrame JF, Navarese EP, Ratcovich H, Wilkinson C, Kunadian V

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Heart Journal Open

Year: 2023

Volume: 3

Issue: 2

Online publication date: 27/03/2023

Acceptance date: 22/03/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2752-4191

Publisher: Oxford University Press


DOI: 10.1093/ehjopen/oead033


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