Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Thermo-mechanical analysis of bhimal fiber (Grewia optiva)-CaCO3/flyash/TiO2 reinforced epoxy bio-composites

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Kheng-Lim GohORCiD


Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available.


© 2023 Elsevier B.V. The Bhimal fiber, derived from agro-waste and found in abundant Himalayan forest is having no commercial utilization and economical contribution to the state yet while it possess superior mechanical properties. This study explores the novel idea of utilizing bhimal fiber, and the interaction of agro-industrial wastes, resulting in will improve the economy of the farmers and the state. The bio composites were created by incorporating different types of industrial-waste particulates, including CaCO3, Flyash, and TiO2, at varying weight percentages with 15% and 20% by weight of Bhimal fiber. NaOH-treated Bhimal fiber was cast-off for improving to surface structure of native cellulose and resulting in enhancement of the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. The study found that the incorporation of CaCO3/Flyash/TiO2 at 5, 10, and 15 Weight (wt.)% with 20 and 15 wt% of Bhimal-fiber enhanced the properties of developed biocomposites. Incorporation of TiO2 at 5 wt% leads to a significant improvement in tensile and compressive strength along with hardness, by 122.26%, 103.02%, and 73.54%, respectively. The flexural strength decreased with increasing percentages of CaCO3/TiO2 (from 5 to 15 wt%), while fly-ash incorporation at 5, 10, and 15 wt% led to an increase in flexural strength, with a maximum increase of 135.06% at 15 wt% fly-ash, and an increase in impact strength of 295.51% at 10 wt% of fly-ash. The incorporation of nano-TiO2 resulted in lowest porosity by 13.22% and higher thermal stability. The study concluded that Nano-TiO2 is the most effective filler for reinforcing the bio composite.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Gupta D, Chaudhary AK, Singh VK, Verma D, Goh KL, Sharma M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Industrial Crops and Products

Year: 2023

Volume: 204

Issue: Part B

Print publication date: 15/11/2023

Online publication date: 26/08/2023

Acceptance date: 17/08/2023

ISSN (print): 0926-6690

ISSN (electronic): 1872-633X

Publisher: Elsevier BV


DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2023.117341


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India