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Three-dimensional Simulations of Massive Stars. II. Age Dependence

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Riccardo Vanon, Dr Philipp EdelmannORCiD, Rathish Ratnasingam, Dr Ashlin Varghese, Professor Tamara Rogers


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© 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.We present 3D full star simulations, reaching up to 90% of the total stellar radius, for three 7 M ⊙ stars of different ages: zero-age main sequence (ZAMS), mid-main sequence (midMS), and terminal-age main sequence (TAMS). A comparison with several theoretical prescriptions shows that the generation spectra for all three ages are dominated by convective plumes. Two distinct overshooting layers are observed, with most plumes stopped within the layer situated directly above the convective boundary; overshooting to the second, deeper layer becomes progressively more infrequent with increasing stellar age. Internal gravity wave (IGW) propagation is significantly impacted in the midMS and TAMS models as a result of some IGWs getting trapped within their Brunt-Väisälä frequency spikes. A fundamental change in the wave structure across radius is also observed, driven by the effect of density stratification on IGW propagation causing waves to become evanescent within the radiative zone, with older stars being affected more strongly. We find that the steepness of the frequency spectrum at the surface increases from ZAMS to the older models, with older stars also showing more modes in their spectra.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Vanon R, Edelmann PVF, Ratnasingam RP, Varghese A, Rogers TM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Astrophysical Journal

Year: 2023

Volume: 954

Issue: 2

Online publication date: 05/09/2023

Acceptance date: 19/07/2023

ISSN (print): 0004-637X

ISSN (electronic): 1538-4357

Publisher: Institute of Physics


DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ace9db


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