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Here's to the future: Conversational agents in higher education- a scoping review

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Brian Lunn



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2023. With AI's advancing technology, pedagogical changes are occurring, and chatbots are becoming more intertwined in our daily lives. While these can be used in a variety of disciplines, they play a particularly significant role in the digital transformation of education. We present a scoping review of chatbots in higher education (HE), investigating where chatbots are being applied. The main benefits and challenges of chatbots were explored. The quality of the selected papers was assessed using the International Organization for Standards (ISO) 9241–11 guidelines. A total of 2692 citations were found while searching recognized digital databases. After reading the abstract and full text, 64 publications were considered. Backward and forward reference checking yielded four further studies. Altogether, 66 studies were included. This review provides a comprehensive overview of research on using chatbots in HE, including advantages, and challenges. Research demonstrates the versatility and the promising aspects of this type of support system for university education.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Pereira DSM, Falcao F, Costa L, Lunn BS, Pego JM, Costa P

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Educational Research

Year: 2023

Volume: 122

Online publication date: 07/09/2023

Acceptance date: 14/08/2023

Date deposited: 06/10/2023

ISSN (print): 0883-0355

ISSN (electronic): 1873-538X

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2023.102233


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Icognitus4All - It Solutions, LDA
Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)