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Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders—INfORM recommendations: Comprehensive and short-form adaptations for adolescents

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Justin DurhamORCiD, Dr Chris PenlingtonORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).


© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Background: The Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for use in adults is in use worldwide. Until now, no version of this instrument for use in adolescents has been proposed. Objective: To present comprehensive and short-form adaptations of the adult version of DC/TMD that are appropriate for use with adolescents in clinical and research settings. Methods: International experts in TMDs and experts in pain psychology participated in a Delphi process to identify ways of adapting the DC/TMD protocol for physical and psychosocial assessment of adolescents. Results: The proposed adaptation defines adolescence as ages 10–19 years. Changes in the physical diagnosis (Axis I) include (i) adapting the language of the Demographics and the Symptom Questionnaires to be developmentally appropriate for adolescents, (ii) adding two general health questionnaires, one for the adolescent patient and one for their caregivers and (iii) replacing the TMD Pain Screener with the 3Q/TMD questionnaire. Changes in the psychosocial assessment (Axis II) include (i) adapting the language of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale to be developmentally appropriate for adolescents, (ii) adding anxiety and depression assessment that have been validated for adolescents and (iii) adding three constructs (stress, catastrophizing and sleep disorders) to assess psychosocial functioning in adolescents. Conclusion: The recommended DC/TMD, including Axis I and Axis II for adolescents, is appropriate to use in clinical and research settings. This adapted first version for adolescents includes changes in Axis I and Axis II requiring reliability and validity testing in international settings. Official translations of the comprehensive and short-form to different languages according to INfORM requirements will enable a worldwide dissemination and implementation.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Ekberg E, Nilsson I-M, Michelotti A, Al-Khotani A, Alstergren P, RodriguesConti PC, Durham J, Goulet J-P, Hirsch C, Kalaykova S, Kapos FP, King CD, Komiyama O, Koutris M, List T, Lobbezoo F, Ohrbach R, Palermo TM, Peck CC, Penlington C, Restrepo C, Rodrigues MJ, Sharma S, Svensson P, Visscher CM, Wahlund K, Rongo R

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation

Year: 2023

Volume: 50

Issue: 11

Pages: 1167-1180

Print publication date: 01/11/2023

Online publication date: 05/05/2023

Acceptance date: 28/04/2023

Date deposited: 03/11/2023

ISSN (print): 0305-182X

ISSN (electronic): 1365-2842

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc


DOI: 10.1111/joor.13488


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