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Prediction of Cardiometabolic Health Through Changes in Plasma Proteins With Intentional Weight Loss in the DiRECT and DIADEM-I Randomized Clinical Trials of Type 2 Diabetes Remission

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Roy Taylor


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© 2023 by the American Diabetes Association.OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which changes in plasma proteins, previously predictive of cardiometabolic outcomes, predict changes in two diabetes remission trials. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We applied SomaSignal predictive tests (each derived from ∼5,000 plasma protein measurements using aptamer-based proteomics assay) to baseline and 1-year samples of trial intervention (Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial [DiRECT], n = 118, and Diabetes Intervention Accentuating Diet and Enhancing Metabolism [DIADEM-I], n = 66) and control (DiRECT, n = 144, DIADEM-I, n = 76) group participants. RESULTS: Mean (SD) weight loss in DiRECT (U.K.) and DIADEM-I (Qatar) was 10.2 (7.4) kg and 12.1 (9.5) kg, respectively, vs. 1.0 (3.7) kg and 4.0 (5.4) kg in control groups. Cardiometabolic SomaSignal test results showed significant improvement (Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05) in DiRECT and DIADEM-I (expressed as relative difference, intervention minus control) as follows, respectively: liver fat (-26.4%, -37.3%), glucose tolerance (-36.6%, -37.4%), body fat percentage (-8.6%, -8.7%), resting energy rate (-8.0%, -5.1%), visceral fat (-34.3%, -26.1%), and cardiorespiratory fitness (9.5%, 10.3%). Cardiovascular risk (measured with SomaSignal tests) also improved in intervention groups relative to control, but this was significant only in DiRECT (DiRECT, -44.2%, and DIADEM-I, -9.2%). However, weight loss >10 kg predicted significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, -19.1% (95% CI -33.4 to -4.91) in DiRECT and -33.4% (95% CI -57.3, -9.6) in DIADEM-I. DIADEM-I also demonstrated rapid emergence of metabolic improvements at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional weight loss in recent-onset type 2 diabetes rapidly induces changes in protein-based risk models consistent with widespread cardiometabolic improvements, including cardiorespiratory fitness. Protein changes with greater (>10 kg) weight loss also predicted lower cardiovascular risk, providing a positive outlook for relevant ongoing trials.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Sattar N, Taheri S, Astling DP, Chadwick J, Hinterberg MA, Holmes MV, Troth EV, Welsh P, Zaghloul H, Chagoury O, Lean M, Taylor R, Williams S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Diabetes care

Year: 2023

Volume: 46

Issue: 11

Pages: 1949-1957

Print publication date: 01/11/2023

Online publication date: 26/09/2023

Acceptance date: 04/08/2023

ISSN (print): 0149-5992

ISSN (electronic): 1935-5548

Publisher: American Diabetes Association


DOI: 10.2337/dc23-0602

PubMed id: 37756566


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