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Evolution of brain MRI lesions in paediatric myelin- oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) and its relevance to disease course

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Rob ForsythORCiD


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Background: Lesion resolution is often observed in children with myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), and asymptomatic lesions are less commonly reported in MOGAD than in multiple sclerosis (MS).Objective We aimed to evaluate brain MRI changes over time in paediatric MOGAD. Methods: Retrospective study in eight UK paediatric neuroscience centres. Acute brain MRI and available follow-up MRIs were reviewed. Predictors for lesion dynamic were evaluated using multivariable regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to predict risk of relapse, disability and MOG-Ab status. Results: 200 children were included (MOGAD 97; MS 103). At first MRI post attack, new symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions were seen more often in MS versus MOGAD (52/103 vs 28/97; p=0.002 and 37/103 vs 11/97; p<0.001); 83% of patients with MOGAD showed at least one lesion’s resolution at first follow-up scan, and 23% had normal MRI. Only 1 patient with MS had single lesion resolution; none had normal MRI. Disappearing lesions in MOGAD were seen in 40% after the second attack, 21% after third attack and none after the fourth attack. New lesions at first follow-up scan were associated with increased likelihood of relapse (p=0.02) and persistent MOG-Ab serostatus (p=0.0016) compared with those with no new lesions. Plasma exchange was associated with increased likelihood of lesion resolution (p=0.01). Longer time from symptom onset to steroids was associated with increased likelihood of new lesions; 50% increase at 20 days (p=0.01). Conclusions: These striking differences in lesion dynamics between MOGAD and MS suggest greater potential to repair. Early treatment with steroids and plasma exchange is associated with reduced likelihood of new lesions.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Abdel-Mannan O, Champas D, Tur C, Lee V, Manivannan S, Usman H, Skippen A, Desai I, Chitre M, Forsyth R, Kneen R, Ram D, Ramdas S, Rossor T, West S, Wright S, Palace J, Wassmer E, Hemingway C, Lim MJ, Mankad K, Ciccarelli O, Hacohen Y

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Year: 2024

Volume: 95

Issue: 5

Pages: 426-433

Print publication date: 12/04/2024

Online publication date: 18/11/2023

Acceptance date: 23/10/2023

ISSN (print): 0022-3050

ISSN (electronic): 1468-330X

Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group


DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2023-332542


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