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The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2024: phenotypes around the world

Lookup NU author(s): Dr David Lewis-Smith, Dr Rhys ThomasORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is a widely used resource that comprehensively organizes and defines the phenotypic features of human disease, enabling computational inference and supporting genomic and phenotypic analyses through semantic similarity and machine learning algorithms. The HPO has widespread applications in clinical diagnostics and translational research, including genomic diagnostics, gene-disease discovery, and cohort analytics. In recent years, groups around the world have developed translations of the HPO from English to other languages, and the HPO browser has been internationalized, allowing users to view HPO term labels and in many cases synonyms and definitions in ten languages in addition to English. Since our last report, a total of 2239 new HPO terms and 49235 new HPO annotations were developed, many in collaboration with external groups in the fields of psychiatry, arthrogryposis, immunology and cardiology. The Medical Action Ontology (MAxO) is a new effort to model treatments and other measures taken for clinical management. Finally, the HPO consortium is contributing to efforts to integrate the HPO and the GA4GH Phenopacket Schema into electronic health records (EHRs) with the goal of more standardized and computable integration of rare disease data in EHRs.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Gargano MA, Matentzoglu N, Coleman B, Addo-Lartey EB, Anagnostopoulos AV, Anderton J, Avillach P, Bagley AM, Bakstein E, Balhoff JP, Baynam G, Bello SM, Berk M, Bertram H, Bishop S, Blau H, Bodenstein DF, Botas P, Boztug K, Cady J, Callahan TJ, Cameron R, Carbon SJ, Castellanos F, Caufield JH, Chan LE, Chute CG, Cruz-Rojo J, Dahan-Oliel N, Davids JR, de Dieuleveult M, de Souza V, de Vries BBA, de Vries E, DePaulo JR, Derfalvi B, Dhombres F, Diaz-Byrd C, Dingemans AJM, Donadille B, Duyzend M, Elfeky R, Essaid S, Fabrizzi C, Fico G, Firth HV, Freudenberg-Hua Y, Fullerton JM, Gabriel DL, Gilmour K, Giordano J, Goes FS, Moses RG, Green I, Griese M, Groza T, Gu W, Guthrie J, Gyori B, Hamosh A, Hanauer M, Hanusova K, He YO, Hegde H, Helbig I, Holasova K, Hoyt CT, Huang S, Hurwitz E, Jacobsen JOB, Jiang X, Joseph L, Keramatian K, King B, Knoflach K, Koolen DA, Kraus ML, Kroll C, Kusters M, Ladewig MS, Lagorce D, Lai M-C, Lapunzina P, Laraway B, Lewis-Smith D, Li X, Lucano C, Majd M, Marazita ML, Martinez-Glez V, McHenry TH, McInnis MG, McMurry JA, Mihulova M, Millett CE, Mitchell PB, Moslerova V, Narutomi K, Nematollahi S, Nevado J, Nierenberg AA, Cajbikova NN, Nurnberger JI, Ogishima S, Olson D, Ortiz A, Pachajoa H, Perez de Nanclares G, Peters A, Putman T, Rapp CK, Rath A, Reese J, Rekerle L, Roberts AM, Roy S, Sanders SJ, Schuetz C, Schulte EC, Schulze TG, Schwarz M, Scott K, Seelow D, Seitz B, Shen Y, Similuk MN, Simon ES, Singh B, Smedley D, Smith CL, Smolinsky JT, Sperry S, Stafford E, Stefancsik R, Steinhaus R, Strawbridge R, Sundaramurthi JC, Talapova P, Tenorio Castano JA, Tesner P, Thomas RH, Thurm A, Turnovec M, van Gijn ME, Vasilevsky NA, Vlckova M, Walden A, Wang K, Wapner R, Ware JS, Wiafe AA, Wiafe SA, Wiggins LD, Williams AE, Wu C, Wyrwoll MJ, Xiong H, Yalin N, Yamamoto Y, Yatham LN, Yocum AK, Young AH, Yuksel Z, Zandi PP, Zankl A, Zarante I, Zvolsky M, Toro S, Carmody LC, Harris NL, Munoz-Torres MC, Danis D, Mungall CJ, Kohler S, Haendel MA, Robinson PN

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

Year: 2024

Volume: 52

Issue: D1

Pages: D1333-D1346

Print publication date: 05/01/2024

Online publication date: 11/11/2023

Acceptance date: 19/10/2023

Date deposited: 26/01/2024

ISSN (print): 0305-1048

ISSN (electronic): 1362-4962

Publisher: Oxford University Press


DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkad1005

PubMed id: 37953324


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