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Current perspectives on prevention of vascular cognitive impairment and promotion of vascular brain health

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Raj KalariaORCiD, Dr Rufus Akinyemi, Dr Stella Paddick, Dr Masafumi Ihara



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Introduction: The true global burden of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unknown. Reducing risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular disease would inevitably curtail VCI. Areas Covered: The authors review current diagnosis, epidemiology, and risk factors for VCI. VCI increases in older age and by inheritance of known genetic traits. They emphasize modifiable risk factors identified by the 2020 Lancet Dementia Commission. The most profound risks for VCI also include lower education, cardiometabolic factors, and compromised cognitive reserve. Finally, they discuss pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Expert Opinion: By virtue of the high frequencies of stroke and cardiovascular disease the global prevalence of VCI is expectedly higher than prevalent neurodegenerative disorders causing dementia. Since ~ 90% of the global burden of stroke can be attributed to modifiable risk factors, a formidable opportunity arises to reduce the burden of not only stroke but VCI outcomes including progression from mild to the major in form of vascular dementia. Strict control of vascular risk factors and secondary prevention of cerebrovascular disease via pharmacological interventions will impact on burden of VCI. Non-pharmacological measures by adopting healthy diets and encouraging physical and cognitive activities and urging multidomain approaches are important for prevention of VCI and preservation of vascular brain health.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Kalaria RN, Akinyemi RO, Paddick S-M, Ihara M

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

Year: 2024

Volume: 24

Issue: 1

Pages: 25-44

Print publication date: 01/01/2024

Online publication date: 02/11/2023

Acceptance date: 17/10/2023

ISSN (print): 1473-7175

ISSN (electronic): 1744-8360

Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd.


DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2023.2273393

PubMed id: 37916306