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Biomarkers and Risk Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Raj KalariaORCiD, Dr Rufus Akinyemi


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© 2023 - IOS Press. All rights reserved. Dementia is a chronic syndrome which is common among the elderly and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for patients and their caregivers. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of clinical dementia, is biologically characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The onset of AD begins decades before manifestation of symptoms and clinical diagnosis, underlining the need to shift from clinical diagnosis of AD to a more objective diagnosis using biomarkers. Having performed a literature search of original articles and reviews on PubMed and Google Scholar, we present this review detailing the existing biomarkers and risk assessment tools for AD. The prevalence of dementia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is predicted to increase over the next couple of years. Thus, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers that may be appropriate for use in LMICs, considering the following factors: sensitivity, specificity, invasiveness, and affordability of the biomarkers. We also explored risk assessment tools and the potential use of artificial intelligence/machine learning solutions for diagnosing, assessing risks, and monitoring the progression of AD in low-resource settings. Routine use of AD biomarkers has yet to gain sufficient ground in clinical settings. Therefore, clinical diagnosis of AD will remain the mainstay in LMICs for the foreseeable future. Efforts should be made towards the development of low-cost, easily administered risk assessment tools to identify individuals who are at risk of AD in the population. We recommend that stakeholders invest in education, research and development targeted towards effective risk assessment and management.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Adewale BA, Coker MM, Ogunniyi A, Kalaria RN, Akinyemi RO

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Year: 2023

Volume: 95

Issue: 4

Pages: 1339-1349

Online publication date: 10/10/2023

Acceptance date: 05/08/2023

ISSN (print): 1387-2877

ISSN (electronic): 1875-8908

Publisher: IOS Press BV


DOI: 10.3233/JAD-221030

PubMed id: 37694361