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Impaired Glymphatic Function and Pulsation Alterations in a Mouse Model of Vascular Cognitive Impairment

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Raj KalariaORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Copyright © 2022 Li, Kitamura, Beverley, Koudelka, Duncombe, Lennen, Jansen, Marshall, Platt, Wiegand, Carare, Kalaria, Iliff and Horsburgh. Large vessel disease and carotid stenosis are key mechanisms contributing to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia. Our previous work, and that of others, using rodent models, demonstrated that bilateral common carotid stenosis (BCAS) leads to cognitive impairment via gradual deterioration of the neuro-glial-vascular unit and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein. Since brain-wide drainage pathways (glymphatic) for waste clearance, including Aβ removal, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of VCI via glial mechanisms, we hypothesized that glymphatic function would be impaired in a BCAS model and exacerbated in the presence of Aβ. Male wild-type and Tg-SwDI (model of microvascular amyloid) mice were subjected to BCAS or sham surgery which led to a reduction in cerebral perfusion and impaired spatial learning acquisition and cognitive flexibility. After 3 months survival, glymphatic function was evaluated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fluorescent tracer influx. We demonstrated that BCAS caused a marked regional reduction of CSF tracer influx in the dorsolateral cortex and CA1-DG molecular layer. In parallel to these changes increased reactive astrogliosis was observed post-BCAS. To further investigate the mechanisms that may lead to these changes, we measured the pulsation of cortical vessels. BCAS impaired vascular pulsation in pial arteries in WT and Tg-SwDI mice. Our findings show that BCAS influences VCI and that this is paralleled by impaired glymphatic drainage and reduced vascular pulsation. We propose that these additional targets need to be considered when treating VCI.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Li M, Kitamura A, Beverley J, Koudelka J, Duncombe J, Lennen R, Jansen MA, Marshall I, Platt B, Wiegand UK, Carare RO, Kalaria RN, Iliff JJ, Horsburgh K

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Year: 2022

Volume: 13

Online publication date: 13/01/2022

Acceptance date: 07/12/2021

Date deposited: 05/03/2024

ISSN (electronic): 1663-4365

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA


DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2021.788519


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Funder referenceFunder name
152 (PG-157)
228 (AS-DTC-2014-017)
ARUK-PG2013-22Alzheimer`s Research UK
290 (AS-PG-15b-018)
314 (AS –PhD-16-006)
Alzheimer's Society
Alzheimer's Society Scotland Doctoral Training Programme
China Scholarship Council (CSC)/University of Edinburgh scholarship
RS Macdonald Trust
University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology