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Ultrasound and sonochemistry enhance education outcomes: From fundamentals and applied research to entrepreneurial potential

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Jarka Glassey



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2024 The Author(s)With this manuscript we aim to initiate a discussion specific to educational actions around ultrasonics sonochemistry. The importance of these actions does not just derive from a mere pedagogical significance, but they can be an exceptional tool for illustrating various concepts in other disciplines, such as process intensification and microfluidics. Sonochemistry is currently a far-reaching discipline extending across different scales of applicability, from the fundamental physics of tiny bubbles and molecules, up to process plants. This review is part of a special issue in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, where several scholars have shared their experiences and highlighted opportunities regarding ultrasound as an education tool. The main outcome of our work is that teaching and mentorship in sonochemistry are highly needed, with a balanced technical and scientific knowledge to foster skills and implement safe protocols. Applied research typically features the use of ultrasound as ancillary, to merely enhance a given process and often leading to poorly conceived experiments and misunderstanding of the actual effects. Thus, our scientific community must build a consistent culture and monitor reproducible practices to rigorously generate new knowledge on sonochemistry. These practices can be implemented in teaching sonochemistry in classrooms and research laboratories. We highlight ways to collectively provide a potentially better training for scientists, invigorating academic and industry-oriented careers. A salient benefit for education efforts is that sonochemistry-based projects can serve multidisciplinary training, potentially gathering students from different disciplines, such as physics, chemistry and bioengineering. Herein, we discuss challenges, opportunities, and future avenues to assist in designing courses and research programs based on sonochemistry. Additionally, we suggest simple experiments suitable for teaching basic physicochemical principles at the undergraduatelevel. We also provide arguments and recommendations oriented towards graduate and postdoctoral students, in academia or industry to be more entrepreneurial. We have identified that sonochemistry is consistently seen as a ‘green’ or sustainable tool, which particular appeal to process intensification approaches, including microfluidics and materials science. We conclude that a globally aligned pedagogical initiative and constantly updated educational tools will help to sustain a virtuous cycle in STEM and industrial applications of sonochemistry.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Fernandez Rivas D, Cintas P, Glassey J, Boffito DC

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry

Year: 2024

Volume: 103

Online publication date: 06/02/2024

Acceptance date: 01/02/2024

Date deposited: 04/03/2024

ISSN (print): 1350-4177

ISSN (electronic): 1873-2828

Publisher: Elsevier B.V.


DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2024.106795

PubMed id: 38359576


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