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Vortex Depinning in a Two-Dimensional Superfluid

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Gary LiuORCiD, Dr Andrew BaggaleyORCiD, Professor Carlo Barenghi, Dr Toby Wood



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© The Author(s) 2024.We employ the Gross–Pitaevskii theory to model a quantized vortex depinning from a small obstacle in a two-dimensional superfluid due to an imposed background superfluid flow. We find that, when the flow’s velocity exceeds a critical value, the vortex drifts orthogonally to the flow before subsequently moving parallel to it away from the pinning site. The motion of the vortex around the pinning site is also accompanied by an emission of a spiral-shaped sound pulse. Through simulations, we present a phase diagram of the critical flow velocity for vortex depinning together with an empirical formula that illustrates how the critical velocity increases with the height and width of the pinning site. By employing a variety of choices of initial and boundary conditions, we are able to obtain lower and upper bounds on the critical velocity and demonstrate the robustness of these results.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Liu I-K, Prasad SB, Baggaley AW, Barenghi CF, Wood TS

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Low Temperature Physics

Year: 2024

Pages: epub ahead of print

Online publication date: 12/03/2024

Acceptance date: 12/02/2024

Date deposited: 25/03/2024

ISSN (print): 0022-2291

ISSN (electronic): 1573-7357

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/s10909-024-03064-7


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Funder referenceFunder name
Leverhulme Trust
Science and Technology Facilities Council