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Referrals for proliferative diabetic retinopathy from two UK diabetic retinopathy screening services: a 10-year analysis of visual outcomes, requirement for vitrectomy, and mortality

Lookup NU author(s): Maged Habib, Dr Teresa Sandinha, Professor David SteelORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© The Author(s) 2024. Background/objectives: To determine long-term outcomes of patients referred with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) from diabetic eye screening programmes (DESP) to tertiary care centres in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods: Retrospective multicentre study of patients referred from two DESPs in the UK over a 36-month period (2007–9) and followed-up for 10 years. Critical outcomes included severe vision loss (SVL) and the need for vitrectomy. Other outcomes assessed included moderate vision loss (MVL), and patient survival time. Univariate and multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to analyse survival outcomes. Results: 212 eyes of 150 patients were referred with a diagnosis of PDR. 109 eyes of 72 patients were confirmed to have active PDR and included in the study. 61% of patients had low-risk PDR, while 39% exhibited high-risk features in at least one eye. Eight (7.3%) eyes developed SVL and 16 (14.7%) MVL during follow up. Vitrectomy was required in 24% (95% CI: 15 to 31%) of all PDR eyes and was most commonly performed for vitreous haemorrhage (65%). The 10-year survival in all PDR patients was 76% (95% CI: 63 to 85%) with the mean time to death for all deceased patients being 5.4 ± 3.6 years. On multivariable analysis, only age was found to have a significant association with the survival of patients with PDR. Conclusions: During the 10 year follow up SVL was uncommon, but MVL occurred in almost one-fifth of the eyes. Approximately 1 in 4 eyes required vitrectomy, highlighting its significance in patient management.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Sadiq SN, Lee CN, Charmer B, Jones E, Habib MS, Sandinha MT, Criddle T, Steel DHW

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Eye

Year: 2024

Pages: ePub ahead of Print

Online publication date: 23/04/2024

Acceptance date: 11/04/2024

Date deposited: 08/05/2024

ISSN (print): 0950-222X

ISSN (electronic): 1476-5454

Publisher: Springer Nature


DOI: 10.1038/s41433-024-03078-1


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