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The case of the monarch butterfly: a verdict is returned

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Angharad MR GatehouseORCiD, Dr Natalie Ferry, Romaan Jan Maria Raemaekers



A publication reporting the harmful effects on the monarch butterfly of maize genetically modified to express insecticidal delta-endotoxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) caused much public interest. A series of ecologically based studies were subsequently carried out to evaluate rigorously the impact of pollen from such crops and to quantify the risks. The results demonstrated that the commercial large-scale cultivation of current Bt-maize hybrids did not pose a significant risk to the monarch population. Further studies also demonstrated that Bt-expressing crops posed little risk to other nontarget insects, including beneficial insects such as pollinators and natural enemies.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Gatehouse AM, Ferry N, Raemaekers RJM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Trends in Genetics

Year: 2002

Volume: 18

Issue: 5

Pages: 249-251

Print publication date: 01/05/2005

Date deposited: 20/10/2005

ISSN (print): 0168-9525

ISSN (electronic): 1362-4555

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.


DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9525(02)02664-1


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