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Progression and Treatment of Chronic Adult Periodontitis

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Philip Preshaw, Professor Peter Heasman


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Background: The periodontal status of 41 medically healthy adults with untreated chronic periodontitis was monitored before and after scaling and root planing (SRP). Methods: During a 6-month pretreatment phase, clinical measurements, digital subtraction radiography (DSR) analysis of alveolar bone, and measurement of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were undertaken. SRP was provided during a 1-month treatment phase. Clinical, radiographic, and biochemical analyses were repeated in a 6-month post-treatment healing period. Results: Pretreatment: no clinically significant changes in mean plaque indices (PI), probing depths (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), or relative clinical attachment levels (CAL) were detected (P>0.05). DSR revealed small but statistically significant bone height (0.04 mm) and mass (0.97 mg) loss (P <0.001). GCF PGE2 levels gradually increased from 38.8 ng/ml at month 1 to 79.4 ng/ml at month 6. Post-treatment: statistically and clinically significant reductions were observed in mean PI, BOP, and PD (P <0.05). A statistically significant reduction in CAL was noted (P <0.05). The trend towards progressive bone loss was halted and reversed, and a statistically significant decrease in GCF PGE2 concentrations was detected (P <0.001). Smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers did not differ significantly in PI, BOP, CAL, radiographic, or biochemical parameters at any time. Mean PD was significantly greater in current smokers than in non- and ex-smokers (P <0.005). PD reduced comparably in all 3 smoking subgroups following treatment (P <0.01). Conclusions: Conventional clinical measurements failed to identify disease progression over a 6-month period. Significant improvements were observed in clinical parameters after SRP, and a trend towards progressive bone loss was halted and reversed. Regular and frequent maintenance visits are important following treatment to maintain improvements in clinical parameters. Smokers had deeper probing depths than non- and ex-smokers, but pockets were reduced significantly and comparably in all 3 smoking subgroups following efficacious treatment.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Preshaw PM, Lauffart B, Zak E, Jeffcoat MK, Barton I, Heasman PA

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Periodontology

Year: 1999

Volume: 70

Issue: 10

Pages: 1209-1220

Print publication date: 01/10/1999

ISSN (print): 0022-3492

ISSN (electronic): 1943-3670

Publisher: American Academy of Periodontology


DOI: 10.1902/jop.1999.70.10.1209

PubMed id: 10534076


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